Project Biology 10b
Friday, December 10, 2004
As a student, the only thing we can do is that just to tell the great things which happened in Trowulan at previous time and actually the recent system is good, so it is not necessary to change the system in order to make this country great. However, the people who run the system should be change so that this regent and Indonesia can be great like at the previous time. This website is our way to tell it. We tell it through this website, which can be easily access anywhere, everywhere, by every people.
Trowulan in the Past
MAJAPAHIT IN THE PAST
Short History about Majapahit Kingdom
In the Indonesian History during the 12th to 15th century, there was a huge kingdom in Indonesia that occupied most of the area of South East Asia called Mojopahit Kingdom. Mojopahit Kingdom was established in East Java, at first, Raden Wijaya with his people came to an area named Trik in Mojokerto. This area had many Maja Trees, whose fruits are very bitter. Because of this, Raden Wijaya called this area Majapahit because ‘pahit’ in Indonesian means bitter.
After the founding of Majapahit, the kingdom grew very fast and after a few decades, Majapahit had occupied the whole area of Java Island. Raden Wijaya was the first king of Majapahit and his title was Kertarajasa Jayawarddana. After Raden Wijaya died in 1309 AD, his son, Jayanegara, ruled the kingdom. During Jayanegara’s authority, Majapahit kingdom passed many obstacles such as rebellions of his father’s unsatisfied subordinates. After fighting the rebellion for years, Majapahit kingdom managed to protect its country, but unfortunately, his own traditional doctor killed Jayanegara.
After Jayanegara’s dead, Majapahit came to a new era and was ruled by Tribhuana Wajayotunggo Dewi who was helped by his governor, Gajahmada. Gajahmada later became very famous because he made an oath named Palapa oath. In his oath, Gajahmada swore that he would lead Majapahit to dominate the South East area.
After a century since its founding, Majapahit started its golden era during Hayam Wuruk’s hegemony. During this period, Gajahmada fulfilled his oath and led Majapahit to dominate South East Asia. The area consisted of Indonesia, Malacca (Malaysia), Thailand, Vietnam, and Philippine. Soon afterwards, Hayam Wuruk died in 1389 and the Majapahit Kingdom started to suffer many problems. Started by a conflict between two of Hayam Wuruk’s children, a war could not be avoid. This great intern war was very famous known as ‘Perang Paregreg’.
When the war ended three years later, Wikramawarddana who won the war ruled for years. Then the throne was bequeathed to his descendants until his third generations. However, on that time, Majapahit had lost its powers. Its internal problems along with a new development in North Java Coast caused Majapahit did not exist anymore. At last, in 1519, Majapahit Kingdom had totally ended.
Religion in the Majapahit Kingdom
During the times Majapahit existed in Java, the kingdom had spread many religions to the people in Indonesia. Before the 4th century, Indonesian people had not had any religions but the believed in animism and dynamism, a belief that everything in the world has spirit and a tradition to worship ancestors’ spirits.
During Majapahit era, there were two majors’ religions, Hindu and Buddha, and this two religions became national’s religion. The number of Buddhists and Hindus reached more than 90% of Majapahit populations, however, there were also people who still believed in animism and dynamism or believed in Islam.
In every national ceremony, two religious leaders must exist to remark the two major religions. Recent research done by a number of scientists had also found that Majapahit was also the center of religion development during those times. In its capital city there were number of religious universities which means that in that time Majapahit had grew so much and became the center of world civilization. One of the most famous books of Mojopahit, Sutasoma, which was written by Mpu Tantular was used as Indonesian slogan, ‘Bhinneka Tunggal Ika’. This sentence means that people are different from each other but have one nationality and no justice has two faces.
The Majapahit Government
Majapahit was a kingdom, so it was ruled by one power, usually a king or queen. A kingdom always uses Monarchy government in which the highest leader was the king, while its leadership must be continued to the king’s descendants. The children of the kings usually also have power under the king, on the other hand there were also governors who were called as ‘Bhree’ who control country politics. Then every sector of the country had one leader that ruled the activities of the citizens.
Majapahit had developed laws to maintain justice. The laws controlled the citizens’ life and had two types, penal law and civil law. Penal law prohibited violation against other while civil law controlled the problems among citizens. Because of its modern law, Majapahit managed to control people to do their own works smoothly. Because of this, Majapahit then became a strong agricultural country that produces many foods and livestocks. It showed that during that time Majapahit was a wealthy country.
Humans Stratification in Majapahit
Under Mojopahit Era in Java, Humans stratification still existed. In Majapahit kingdom, not every citizen has the same rights. In the major, there were four types of stratification. The stratification based on their aristocracy. The first group was Brahmana. Brahmana was people who have strong religious wisdom. They were the families of religious leaders, they lived wealthily, and they have a high social status. After that, there was Ksatria who consisted of many aristocracies. They usually were kings’ families or high-class people who have strong positions in government.
The third class was sudra. Sudra people consisted of the normal citizens like farmers and traders and they did not have any special rights, however, they can still live freely but not so wealthy. The last group was Paria. Paria people were same as slaves. They have no right and they were owned by other people and must do many works for nothing. On that time, this kind of condition was usual and no one thought that it was wrong. (Sebastian/ 10B)
Thursday, December 09, 2004
Trowulan in the Future
Changing will happened on Trowulan if Trowulan is rich of culture. Trowulan is a city that divided by 5 different religions and that is; Catholic, Christian, Hinduism, Buddhism and Islamic, but most of the peoples in Trowulan are Islamic. In our prediction, the revolutionize will occur, that the civilization religion will not mostly be Islamic, but it will be Christian and Catholic. This is because Trowulan is a cultural city, which makes tourist come there. This changing is also occurs in Bali now. Tourist will live there as a civil of Trowulan and make a relatives there. They will teach them the Catholicism
The Structure of Government right now is:
In our prediction the arrangement of the government will not be changed, despite the coming of tourist to Indonesia. The leadership from the President doesn’t quite make a change the influence in Indonesia; this is because the citizen in Indonesia is becoming smarter. Maybe there is not going to be any more corruption in Indonesia, because the government in Indonesia is starting to know the risk of corruption.
The peoples in Indonesia are becoming smarter and smarter in politics and they do it without the help of foreigner, but with the help of the new President more quality than before. It is because the education of the President will be more advanced and maybe the laws of becoming the president is going to be change, graduating on professor degree is going to be one of the laws that is going to be change, so that the politics is going to be more modern.
Trowulan in the Present
Trowulan in Present Condition
After we have discussed Trowulan’s religion, government, and political system in the previous part, we will discuss all of those Trowulan’s system in this present time in this part. We will analyze, whether Trowulan, the capital city of great kingdom (Majapahit) in the past time from 13th to 15th century still use the same system like the past time or not. Of course, within seven centuries, almost all things and condition in the world changed, including religion, government, and political system in Trowulan. Those changes in our real life are caused by many things, like changes of culture, people, social life, other new religion, environment, and others.
First of all, we will discuss the religion system in Trowulan rigt now. Most of the people who live in Trowulan are Moslems, which become the major belief in Indonesia. It is about 95 percent of inhabitants there that are Moslems, while the rest profess other religion, such as Christian, Catholic, Buddha, and Hindu. There aren’t any local beliefs in Trowulan, which still exist in many rural area and rural people believe. They also don’t have certain outstanding religious doctrine which is different than others, although chance to have those things are big because they are used to be the preacher. It means that all of religion, praying places, religion rules, and its lesson in Trowulan are same with the other area. Besides, Trowulan doesn’t get any special rights and privileges or act from the government, for example have any special religion facilities such as religion museum, religious school, and others. Government take care the religion there with equal treatment as the other area, although Trowulan was a great religion places in the past. Until right now, they still live harmoniously like the way their ancestors used to. They can live harmoniously, because they appreciate, respect, and understand other religion’s rules and act, so it can be said that inhabitants there never have a fight or any serious problem with other people, wither in Trowulan or other area, due to different beliefs.
More over, political system which is applied in Trowulan right now also has the same political system like in Indonesia. Indonesia is a republic that uses democratic system as the political system, which runs the country. The basic philosophy of democratic system is freedom in any aspects of life, that clearly stated by the philosophy: from citizen, by citizen, and for citizen. Indonesia has already developed and used that philosophy. It can be show through direct election of choosing representative government together with president who leads and run the country. Those people should represent people’s hope and advice, make some policies, and so on in order to make this country great, wealthy, strong, powerful, and give welfare to the citizens. Like other provinces in Indonesia, Trowulan people also have a chance to have a representative in parliaments or president by joining general election. If they are elected with adequate voters, then they will become representatives in parliament or president who directly controls this country. Although Trowulan uses democratic system, they never create serious demonstration like social unrest, chaos, and so on In Indonesia. The reason is that they have already know that demonstration, social unrest, and so on only makes things worse, based on their bad previous experience (During Majapahit era, the people there often had demonstration, rebellion, social unrest, and so on, either inside of outside the kingdom that bring them to the ruin of Majapahit era). As a result, they don’t want to make that same thing happen again for the second time and they succeed in doing it. For international politic, Trowulan also continues their ancestor’s system. During Majapahit era, people there were active in building relationship with other foreign country in marriage, trading, religious relationship, education, and so on, so that they could get benefits and did not have war. Those things are still maintained well by their children. Nowadays, people in Trowulan are active to keep their relationship with other foreigner. Their products are brass statue, rock statue, and others. In general, Trowulan has an ordinary political system like the other areas in Indonesia without any privileges or special act from government or any serious demonstration or any rebellion.
Furthermore, the governmental system in Trowulan is like the other system which we have discussed, which mean the governmental system in Trowulan is also like the other areas in Indonesia. As we have already knows, Indonesia is a republic country, which means a country that is led by a president, and its subordinates. The stated one is the organizational chart in government at Indonesia.
President (Country) --- Parliament representative (Parliament)
District Head (Province Capital), Regent Head (Regent/ Kabupaten)
Subdistrict Head (Subdistrict/ Kecamatan)
Village Chief (Kelurahan)
Neighborhood leader (RW)
Residential leader (RT)
From that chart, we know that President is the leader who assigns his subordinates to control his citizen, so that he can monitor, give compulsory, making policy and so on to the entire citizen easily. Each subordinates of the president govern different level of area (district, province, and others) and area (Surabaya, Jakarta, Trowulan, and others). In addition, president is also helped by his ministries to run this country. Those ministries do not lead people, but they lead other department, such as education, sport, culture, law, and others. Trowulan is included as one of the regents and is led by a regent leader. Nowadays, there isn’t more physical fight due to power in governmental system like at the previous time. Nowadays, to get power, they must have an intellectual fight. Moreover, Trowulan act by the government as the other regent doesn’t have any authorized or unauthorized area leader, which means it doesn’t have any right to have any local government system, although that right exists in Indonesia like at Jogja province, due to the existence of kingdom in that place. That right cannot be given to Trowulan because the previous kingdom (Majapahit) had already been ruined before republic system in Indonesia was carried on.
Things like government system, political system, religion system, have already changed, but social status or stratification hasn’t changed. Actually, social status or stratification is one of Hinduism beliefs. It was inherited from generation to generation of Hinduism people, which was also adopted in Trowulan during Majapahit era, which is a Hinduism-Buddhism kingdom era in Indonesia, by the inhabitants there, whom most of them were profess Hinduism-Buddhism religion and beliefs. It becomes abolished nowadays. Right now, they are not classified through any status or condition and discriminated in any aspects of life as the previous time. They have equal right and facilities and are treated equally by every people.
Due to the changes, there are some good and bad effects. The good effects, in religious field, there are more kinds of religion then previous time which can give the people more freedom in choosing their own belief based on their conscience. Besides, it can create more differences in Trowulan, which can create a better place to lives. In governmental system, the government is more structural than previous time, so the people can be controlled easily. Besides, at previous time they used to physical fight for power in governmental system, but right now there is no more physical fight. In political system, democratic system gives more freedom to people than monarchy system that used in the past time. Consequently, people can express their opinion freely; even participate in running the country through being a representative in the parliament and all things and decision that taken by the government is clearly shown to the citizen. In stratification, there is no more social status system so everybody is not classified and treated equally.
For negative effects, in religious field, recently they cannot live harmoniously. Due to different religion/ beliefs, they can quarrel easily and it often continues from personal fight up to group of people fight, which can inflict loss upon many people. In governmental system, there are many corruptions in Indonesia, that Trowulan may also included in, which can inflict more loss upon Trowulan’s people than previous time, when people had physical fight for power. In political system, because of the freedom of expression, idea, decision, and so on, people can create more debate that often continue to a conflict than previous time. Not only that, but also it can’t be run smoothly because the system has just been applied in Trowulan, which included as Indonesia that is a growing and developing country.
As we can see right now, if we see Trowulan’s condition from Indonesia (all system in Trowulan that we have discussed is the same as in Indonesia), Trowulan is a weak province, because Indonesia country itself has many internal and external problems, especially in difficulties, terrorist, and so on. Actually, Trowulan and Indonesia deserved to be as great as the previous time, because the system in Trowulan is as good as previous time, but, it cannot be the same great like previous time. The reason is that the people who run the system in Indonesia are not the right man although the citizens have already obeyed the system very well. For example, most of the citizens have already paid the tax that is supposed to be used for public or country facilities, but that money were corrupted and used for some people only, therefore Indonesia as a growing and developing country cannot grow and develop as predicted by the government itself.
These are some causes of the changes in political, government, and religion system:
1. Because of the new coming religion/ beliefs (Islam and Christian that is the main aspect of social status abolishment), political, and political system, especially from overseas country that already develop and grow as a great country, which are applied in Indonesia.
2. The citizens become selfish so they concern more about their interest and life. It was caused by the increasing of daily needs price that come as the result of financial difficulties in this country and our weak condition, such as safety that isn’t stabile, policy that isn’t proper, and so on.
3. The citizens become clever so they cannot accept any policy easily.
4. Nationalism decadence. As a consequence, people don’t think this country, they more concern to their own life.
5. People want freedom of choosing religion, expression, and participate to run the country, human rights are more respected, which create those system’s change.
6. Used to be controlled by Dutch and Japanese which make many rebellion because they live miserably.
7. Frequent relationship with overseas which can affect Indonesian people’s lifestyle, because Indonesian people think that they have better lifestyle to carried on.
8. The development of technology.